Your underlying database of positive cases was not built for COVID-19. You might use the state’s system to source new cases, or your county or city might have its own. Test results will come in from hospitals, clinics, private labs, and public labs. These results might come in electronically through an online integration or portal as HL7 feeds, CSVs, or other raw data files. They also might be entered in by hand to the city or state database from someone directly looking up information about the case in the clinic’s EMR (electronic medical record) system, by someone who has received a paper copy of the lab, or by a courier who has brought an electronic file to the city, county, or state on a thumb drive, CD-ROM, or floppy drive. Ideally, you would set up secure electronic integrations between labs and your state, county, and cities so that data can be sent instantly and without alteration.